1. Member States shall ensure, in accordance with the Charter, that persons concerned fully enjoy the right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial, as well as the presumption of innocence and the rights of defence, including the right to be heard and the right to access their file.
2. Competent authorities shall ensure, in accordance with national law, that the identity of persons concerned is protected for as long as investigations triggered by the report or the public disclosure are ongoing.
3. The rules set out in Articles 12, 17 and 18 as regards the protection of the identity of reporting persons shall also apply to the protection of the identity of persons concerned.